Joint Ownership

An association’s governing documents will generally provide that if more than one person holds an ownership interest in a separate interest property within the association, each owner shall be a member of the association. However, the voting rights of that separate interest shall only be exercised by one owner at a time. Owners do not vote proportionately based on their ownership interest in the property. The governing documents may also limit the number of owners per separate interest that may simultaneously serve on the board.

Judge Pro Tem

“Pro Tem” is short for the Latin pro tempore, meaning temporarily or for the time being. A judge pro tem normally is a judge who is sitting temporarily for another judge, or is an attorney who has been appointed to serve as a judge as a substitute for a regular judge. Small claims cases are often heard by an attorney serving as Judge Pro Tem.

Judicial Foreclosure

This is a procedure whereby an association files a Superior Court lawsuit and obtains a judgment of foreclosure. The file is thereafter referred to the sheriff to have the property sold. (Code Civ. Proc. §712.101 et seq.) Most associations use the more streamlined option of nonjudicial foreclosure, which allows association to proceed to conduct a foreclosure sale without a court order.